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Monday, 24 October 2016

शिक्षा गुणवत्‍ता सम्‍बर्द्वन के बारे में जाने

शिक्षा गुणवत्‍ता-


Enhancing Quality of Education



·          State’s Quality Vision

o         We believe that every child is important and is to be nurtured according to his/her aptitude and ability.

o         Focus must be given on the content in the initial stages at primary level so that there is a paradigm shift from instructionism to constructivism in the curriculum transaction.

o         Focus is to be given in the language learning through interactive approach so that appropriate reading and writing skills are built up in the initial stages of learning.

o         Fear about mathematics has to be removed in the entire spectrum of elementary education through joyful learning and projects, assignments and activities. Mathematics corner must be established first at primary level and then upper primary level in phased manner.

o         The learning of science will be ensured through Hands on activities. In order to ensure this, support system will be created at all upper primary schools.

o         The social science will be taught through exploration, activities and in an interesting manner instead of rote learning.

o         There will be greater focus in Physical & Health Education as part of compulsory learning from classes I to VIII.

o         Syllabus and textual material for Art Education and Work Experience will be developed and it will reflect in assessment record.

o         The professional competencies of teachers will be upgraded through Continuous In-service training at every level.

o         Ensuring Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation from classes I to VIII through variety of tools.

                

It is important to have a clear understanding of the concept of quality before implementing quality education in primary and upper primary schools. In this regard the National Knowledge Commission, an apex body constituted by the government of India for enhancing creativity, innovation and productivity in Knowledge fields has paid special attention to school education. The prime concern raised by the commission is about the Quality Challenge. The commission has delineated the following critical components in order to raise the quality of school education:

o         To setup a national body to monitor the quality of schools

o         To develop effective inspection systems to ensure meaningful monitoring

o         To raise the accountability of teachers

o         To revamp and modernize teacher training – both pre-service and in-service

o         To give priority to curriculum reform and make education more relevant for children

o         To push for reforms in examination to focus on language and comprehension, numeric and quantitative skills and ability to use knowledge creatively.

 Thus operational meaning of the term quality education centers on attainment off competencies pertaining to the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of a child. Thecompetencies as learning outcomes of a child may be described as-

o         Students can read and write critically.

o         They should have logical competencies.

o         Good communication skills.

o         Can apply knowledge in real-life situations.

 On the basis of above described domains, the framework of quality of education can be divided into following areas:

o         Plant

o         Process

o         People

o         Content

o         Technology

         For quality education, it is necessary to plan a holistic and comprehensive activities based on above five pillars. This will change the focus of education from teacher centric to child centric & activity based so that education of children becomes joyful, and stress free.

        For 2010-11, State has designed a comprehensive Quality Plan that will strengthen quality parameters: Learning Processes & Learning Outcomes, Minimum Enabling Condition, gap in the content based on new curriculum & TLMs, the Assessment Systems, Teacher Effectiveness, Academic Support & Monitoring Systems and Community & Civil Society Partnership in a holistic manner, in order to lead to visible enhancement in children’s learning. The focus is to bring changes in classroom processes to ensure that every child learns, and to sustain it. The State is geared up to meet the challenges of the Right to Education Act. 

 While devising a comprehensive quality plan for 2010-11, various learning achievement status such as DISE data, reports of QMT, reports of remedial teaching and NCERT's learning achievement survey reports has been analyzed.     This analysis has helped in identification of learning difficulties and gaps and the trends in learning levels. After identifying the learning gaps our approach is to prioritize the issues affecting student's achievement and designing suitable strategies to address each issue in an organized manner.    

1. National Report – Learning Achievement of class V             

  Mid Term Achievement survey was conducted in year 2007-08 to know the learning outcomes of children. This survey also reveals the progress made over baseline survey, which was conducted in year 2002.  Objectives of the study were to study the achievement level of class V children in environmental studies, mathematics and language and to make comparison with BAS. A state wise comparison between Baseline and Mid Term mean achievements is given below:

State

Language

Math

EVS

BAS

MAS

BAS

MAS

BAS

MAS

Uttar Pradesh

50-2

61-77

37-81

52-39

41-45

56-16

All India Average

58-87

60-31

46-51

48-46

50-3

52-19

2.Learners’Achievement-Quality Monitoring Format III

     To enhance and assess quality of education QMT has been developed by NCERT. All the above formats have been discussed with BRC/NPRC coordinators at state level training programmes and trainings conducted at DIET/BRC and NPRCs. Following is the summary of general trend of learners’ achievement depicted from the DLF III format.

Grades

Percentage range of students

Grade A - Children getting more than 80% marks

13 – 17%

Grade B - Children getting more than  65 - 79% marks

30 – 35%

Grade C - Children getting more than 50 - 64% marks

30 – 32%

Grade D - Children getting more than 35 - 49% marks

15–20 %

Grade E - Children getting less than 34% marks

5 – 8%

 

OUTCOMES

The trends from the above data reveals that there is a noticeable improvement in learning levels of children, which is a result of concerted efforts done under SSA during past years. Comparison of BAS and MAS results of class 5th in language and mathematics and EVS indicate that UP has made the qualitative improvement of any state in the country, reaching sixth position in MAS. At the class 8th level UP also shows huge progress BAS to MAS, with 8-12% point increase in scores in language, mathematics, science and social sciences but class 3 results BAS to MAS in both mathematics and language are below the national average. This suggests a need to increase the focus on early years of school, which means increased focus on specific strategies for teaching in early classes of schooling.  Analysis of the quality monitoring tools also suggests the need to increase use of student workbooks, worksheets, activities, TLMs & print and other materials. Although NCERT survey shows remarkable achievement of state, but there is a long way to go.

Based on situational analysis regarding student's achievement, school, teacher effectiveness, classroom process, various piece-meal inputs major issues/gaps are : 

o         Irregular teacher and pupil attendance

o         Lack of desired focus on relevant pedagogy, teachers' mapping for training needs and planned teachers training.

o         Lack of proper system for learner’s assessment and performance evaluation of various functionaries.

o         Lack of opportunities for collective and participatory learning, learning by doing & child friendly environment

o         Lack of community participation & ownership.

o         Need of appropriate learning material at schools and modules for changing classroom transactions towards active learning.

o         Weak on-site academic support and follow up system.

                 

·          Strategies:

o         Improving attendance of Teachers and children.

o         Improved classroom processes and focus on time-on-task and children engagement in appropriate learning tasks.

o         Ensuring Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation from classes I to VIII through variety of tools.

o         Revision and implementation of performance indicators for Teachers, NPRCs, BRCs, DIETs, DPOs and other functionaries at various levels.

o         Capacity building of Key stakeholders and motivate towards shared vision for change.

o         Creating ownership through increased participation of active community in school development planning and academic issues.

o         Using technology for the improved learning and capacity building at various levels through audio/video material, teleconferences, radio broadcasting and video conferences for orientations, reviews and trainings.

o         Ensure that curriculum, textbooks, pedagogy, teacher training, assessment system are harmonized to National Curriculum Framework 2005 and Right to Education Act 2009.

o         Capacity building of DIET, BRCs, CRCs and field functionaries to monitor and effect change.

o         Strengthening of School Libraries & labs and strengthening of Reading Programme at primary level & Hands-on-Activities in science/maths at upper primary level.

o         Improving trainings through Strengthening SRG, DRGs & BRGs and capacity building of trainers & teachers in organized manner.

o         Modules of TLM in Science and Math at upper primary level, module for use of TLM at primary level, modules for reading pedagogy for early primary level and modules for Science and Mathematics based on life situations will be distributed and teachers will be oriented accordingly to change the classroom scenario from transmitting knowledge to facilitating learners to construct knowledge with their own experiences.

o         Comprehensive quality programme under LEP to address quality in a holistic and sustainable way. The focus is to enhance basic reading & numeric skills at early grades and promote hands-on-activities in science/maths at upper primary level.

After Regional Workshop on 'Education of Equitable Quality- phase II' held by MHRD in Dec 2010,  the State is designing a comprehensive Quality Plan that will strengthen quality parameters: Learning Processes & Learning Outcomes, Minimum Enabling Condition, gap in the content based on new curriculum & TLMs, the Assessment Systems, Teacher Effectiveness, Academic Support & Monitoring Systems and Community & Civil Society Partnership in a holistic manner, in order to lead to visible enhancement in children’s learning.


In above circumstances all inputs of quality which includes school grant, teacher grant, teacher training, free text books, remedial teaching, BRC/CRC grant, REMS and LEP are being integrated into following frame work of quality plan which will lead to enhanced participation and learning level of all children.


Plant

o         School grant has been utilized to make the school clean, green and attractive so that children feel comfortable and relaxed in school.

o         At primary level, teacher grant has been used for academically and aesthetically enrich the environment of school so that school compound as well as classroom transactions becomes enjoyable and pleasant. For this purpose "Shikshan Adhigam Sandarshika" has been developed and distributed to all schools.

o         All schools are being electrified which will not only contribute to effectiveness of school but also enhance the computer aided learning

o         Various games, sports and co-curricular activities has been organized to create interest among children and motivate them to attend school regularly.  Art Education and Work Experience will be within the reach of children and the community even after the school hours. This will also help in bridging the gap between school and community.

o          In each school sufficient reading writing material has been provided for development of reading skills at early primary level and at upper primary level maths corner and science labs with hands-on-activity material has been developed under Learning Enhancement programme (LEP).

Process

o         Enabling every child to acquire the basic literacy and numeric skills in class 1 and 2, early reading skill development programme has been operationalized in each district under LEP. Funds available for teachers' training, teacher grant and REMS have been integrated with LEP. Teachers' training for reading pedagogy has been borne under in-service teachers training head, wall painting for reading corner TLMs in class 1 and 2 has been borne under teacher grant head and environment building, book fair, story writing and supervision and monitoring of the programme has been borne through REMS head. Supplementary reading/writing material, teacher's handbook, training guide has been provided through LEP fund.

o         The state has already implemented Continuous assessment in the form of unit tests (formative assessment) both at primary and upper primary level.  The State is committed to implement CCE in its true form.  A committee is already developing concept of CCE in the light of NCERT’s new Source Books on Assessment.  Budget has been proposed  in in-service teachers training head for training of teachers to use newly developed assessment strategies.  Government order has been issued to discontinue Board Examination at the end of primary and upper primary stage. There has no detention, pass and fail at elementary level. Continuous and comprehensive mechanism of evaluation will also be placed in schools very soon.

o         The concept of mathematics corner has been  introduced at upper primary level with following objectives :

§          making teaching and learning of the subject interactive, participatory, fun filling and joyful.

§          Strengthening the learning of mathematical concept through concrete material and hands on experience.

§          Relating class room learning to real life situations and discourage rote and mechanical learning.

§          This has been strengthened in 2010-11.  Teachers' training for learning by doing pedagogy in mathematics has been borne under in-service teachers training head, environment building, math's Olympiad and supervision and monitoring of the programme has been borne through REMS head. Maths kit and other supplementary material, teacher's handbook, activity book, training guide has been borne under teacher grant and LEP head.

o         Concept of activity and experiment based science teaching has been introduced at the upper primary level.  This will change the present science teaching as content teaching and memorization of      facts leads it to dry and uninteresting. An active and involved learning through observing, exploring,  asking questions and trying experiments will make understanding of difficult concepts of science easier and interesting.       

                     Teachers' training for activity based learning pedagogy in science has been borne under in-service teachers training head, environment building, vigyan Mela, model exhibition, and supervision and monitoring of the programme has been borne through REMS head. Science lab, teacher's handbook, activity book, training guide has been borne under teacher grant and LEP head. 

People

In-Service Teacher Training

         Capacities of both the teachers and the support structures (BRC Coordinators and NPRC Coordinators) has been built through series of training programs, workshops and seminars at all levels viz. state, district and block. The plan of in-service teacher training under SSA has taken into account the child-centered teaching learning process, field realities, its resources & constraints & changes. It has taken into account the constructivist approach in which teacher acts as facilitator and works towards creating a variety of learning experiences in and out of the classroom that enable the children to construct knowledge from activity and experiences in day-to-day life.

                       



       In the academic year 2010-11, training calendar has been developed with the help of BRC, DIETs and SCERT.  SCERT and its institutions have been actively engaged in module revision, training of teacher educators and monitoring, support & follow-up of in-service teachers' training programme.  Following in-service training programmes has been organized for the positive changes in classroom practices:



Primary Level

o         Early reading skill development for 2 teachers  per primary school

o         English teaching for 1 teacher per primary school


Upper Primary Level

o         Activity and experiment based Science teaching for 1 teacher

o         Activity and assignment based math's teaching for 1 teacher

o         English teaching for 1 teacher per upper primary school

            

             

          All NPRPs and BRPs has been provided training in  above proposed programmes. 6-days follow-up training will be organised for each  primary and upper primary school at NPRC level.

CONTENT

            The entire curriculum has been revised in light of NCF 2005. This has included an emphasis on student centered learning rather than rote learning. This has implied quality related changes in all aspects like curriculum, textbooks development, and work books. Need not to say that this will push forward deepening and broadening the qualitative reform process.  Work books  in Language & Mathematics for classes 1-5 has been provided for active learning.

            In year 2010-11 revised activity and exercise books in language and mathematics for class 1 to 2 & hands-on-activity material in Science & Maths for class 7&8  are being distributed to provide additional opportunities for active learning. New activity based Teacher's guides are also being developed by SCERT .


                Appropriate textual materials is being developed for Art Education and Work Experience and participation of all children will be ensured.  Evaluation system will also be strengthened to ensure its proper reflection in the assessment record. Art Education and Work Experience will be within the reach of children and the community even after the school hours.


            



Technology

            Use of technologies adds a new dimensions  to teaching learning process by providing flexible and learners-centric education.   Computer enabled learning is a tested medium to support further learning as well as self-directed learning. To promote computer aided learning in schools and to enhance the use of computers as an effective teaching learning aid, computers has been provided to upper primary schools. Teachers of these schools has been imparted 10 days training for effective use of computer in learning. Computer Labs have been established in collaboration with Microsoft India Ltd in five districts namely Allahabad, Bulandshahar, Gorakhpur, Jhansi and Lucknow. These labs cater to the training needs of teachers of surrounding districts.


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