Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalise elementary education by community-ownership of the school system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education in Farrukhabad District. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode.
1.1 WHAT IS SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.
A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents' Teachers' Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools.
An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.
A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.
An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education
1.2 AIMS OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.
Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and that draws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each other's well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or special pre-school centres in non ICDS areas will be made to supplement the efforts being made by the Department of Women and Child Development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School' camp by 2003;
All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010
Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010
Universal retention by 2010
1.6 BROAD STRATEGIES CENTRAL TO SSA PROGRAMME
Institutional Reforms - As part of the SSA, the central and the State governments will undertake reforms in order to improve efficiency of the delivery system. The states will have to make an objective assessment of their prevalent education system including educational administration, achievement levels in schools, financial issues, decentralisation and community ownership, review of State Education Act, rationalization of teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers, monitoring and evaluation, status of education of girls, SC/ST and disadvantaged groups, policy regarding private schools and ECCE. Many States have already carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary education.
Sustainable Financing - The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on the premise that financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. This calls for a long -term perspective on financial partnership between the Central and the State governments.
Community Ownership - The programme calls for community ownership of school-based interventions through effective decentralisation. This will be augmented by involvement of women's groups, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.
Institutional Capacity Building -The SSA conceives a major capacity building role for national, state and district level institutions like NIEPA / NCERT / NCTE / SCERT / SIEMAT / DIET.
Improvement in quality requires a sustainable support system of resource persons and institutions.
Improving Mainstream Educational Administration - It calls for improvement of mainstream educational administration by institutional development, infusion of new approaches and by adoption of cost effective and efficient methods.
Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency - The Programme will have a community based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school level data with community-based information from micro planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will be encouraged to share all information with the community, including grants received. A notice board would be put up in every school for this purpose.
Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on a community based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of planning. Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating district plans.
Accountability to Community - SSA envisages cooperation between teachers, parents and PRIs, as well as accountability and transparency to the community.
Priority to Education of Girls - Education of girls, especially those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and minorities, will be one of the principal concerns in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Focus on Special Groups - There will be a focus on the inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST, minority groups, urban deprived children disadvantaged groups and the children with special needs, in the educational process.
Pre-Project Phase - SSA will commence throughout the country with a well-planned pre-project phase that provides for a large number of interventions for capacity development to improve the delivery and monitoring system. These include provision for household surveys, community-based microplanning and school mapping, training of community leaders, school level activities, support for setting up information system, office equipment, diagnostic studies, etc.,
Thrust on Quality - SSA lays a special thrust on making education at the elementary level useful and relevant for children by improving the curriculum, child-centered activities and effective teaching learning strategies.
Role of teachers - SSA recognizes the critical and central role of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs. Setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres, recruitment of qualified teachers, opportunities for teacher development through participation in curriculum-related material development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among teachers.
District Elementary Education Plans - As per the SSA framework, each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting all the investments being made and required in the elementary education sector, with a holistic and convergent approach. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE. There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. The Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to constant improvement in the course of Programme Implementation.
1.7 PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN SSA
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan takes note of the fact that provision of elementary education is largely made by the government and government aided schools. There are also private unaided schools in many parts of the country that provide elementary education. Poorer households are not able to afford the fees charged in private schools in many parts of the country. There are also private schools that charge relatively modest fees and where poorer children are also attending. Some of these schools are marked by poor infrastructure and low paid teachers. While encouraging all efforts at equity and 'access to all' in well-endowed private unaided schools, efforts to explore areas of public-private partnership will also be made. Government, Local Body, and government aided schools would be covered under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, as is the practice under the Mid Day Meal scheme and DPEP. In case private sector wishes to improve the functioning of a government, local body or a private aided school, efforts to develop a partnership would be made within the broad parameters of State policy in this regard. Depending on the State policies, DIETs and other Government teacher-training institutes could be used to provide resource support to private unaided institutions, if the additional costs are to be met by these private bodies.
1.8 FINANCIAL NORMS UNDER SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the IX Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the X Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central government and State governments. Commitments regarding sharing of costs would be taken from State governments in writing.
The State governments will have to maintain their level of investment in elementary education as in 1999-2000. The contribution as State share for SSA will be over and above this investment.
The Government of India would release funds to the State Governments/Union Territories only and instalments (except first) would only be released after the previous instalments of Central government and State share has been transferred to the State Implementation Society.
The support for teacher salary appointed under the SSA programme could be shared between the Central Government and the State government in a ratio of 85:15 during the IX Plan, 75:25 during the X Plan and 50:50 thereafter.
All legal agreements regarding externally assisted projects will continue to apply unless specific modifications have been agreed to, in consultation with foreign funding agencies.
Existing schemes of elementary education of the Department (except National Bal Bhawan and NCTE) will converge after the IX Plan. The National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-Day-Meal) would remain a distinct intervention with foodgrains and specified transportation costs being met by the Centre and the cost of cooked meals being met by the State government.
District Education Plans would inter–alia, clearly show the funds/resource available for various components under schemes like PMGY, JGSY, PMRY, Sunishchit Rozgar Yojana, Area fund of MPs/MLAs, State Plan, foreign funding (if any) and resources generated in the NGO sector.
All funds to be used for upgradation, maintenance, repair of schools and Teaching Learning Equipment and local management to be transferred to VECs/ School Management Committees/ Gram Panchayat/ or any other village/ school level arrangement for decentralisation adopted by that particular State/UT. The village/ school-based body may make a resolution regarding the best way of procurement.
Other incentive schemes like distribution of scholarships and uniforms will continue to be funded under the State Plan. They will not be funded under the SSA programme.
The major financial norms under SSA are:
NORMS FOR INTERVENTIONS UNDER SSA
One teacher for every 40 children in Primary and upper primary
At least two teachers in a Primary school
One teacher for every class in the upper primary
School / Alternative schooling facility
Within one Kilometre of every habitation
Provision for opening of new schools as per State norms or for setting up EGS like schools in unserved habitations.
Upper Primary schools/ Sector
As per requirement based on the number of children completing primary education, up to a ceiling of one upper primary school/section for every two primary schools
A room for every teacher in Primary & upper Primary, with the provision that there would be two class rooms with verandah to every Primary school with at least two teachers.
A room for Head-Master in upper Primary school/section
To all girls/SC/ST children at primary & upper primary level within an upper ceiling of Rs. 150/- per child
State to continue to fund free textbooks being currently provided from the State Plans.
Ceiling of 33% of SSA programme funds.
For improvement of school facilities, BRC/CRC construction.
CRCs could also be used as an additional room.
No expenditure to be incurred on construction of office buildings
Districts to prepare infrastructure Plans.
Maintenance and repair of school buildings
Only through school management committees/VECs
Upto Rs. 5000 per year as per specific proposal by the school committee.
Must involve elements of community contribution
Upgradation of EGS to regular school or setting up of a new Primary school as per State norm
Provision for TLE @ Rs 10,000/- per school
TLE as per local context and need
Involvement of teachers and parents necessary in TLE selection and procurement
VEC/ school-village level appropriate body to decide on best mode of procurement
Requirement of successful running of EGS centre for two years before it is considered for upgradation.
Provision for teacher & classrooms.
TLE for upper-primary
@ Rs 50,000 per school for uncovered schools.
As per local specific requirement to be determined by the teachers/ school committee
School committee to decide on best mode of procurement, in consultation with teachers
School Committee may recommend district level procurement if there are advantages of scale.
Rs. 2000/- per year per primary/upper primary school for replacement of non functional school equipment
Transparency in utilisation
To be spent only by VEC/SMC
Rs 500 per teacher per year in primary and upper primary
Transparency in utilisation
Provision of 20 days In-service course for all teachers each year, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers already employed as teachers, and 30 days orientation for freshly trained recruits @ Rs. 70/- per day
Unit cost is indicative; would be lower in non residential training programmes
Includes all training cost
Assessment of capacities for effective training during appraisal will determine extent of coverage.
Support for SCERT/DIET under existing Teacher Education Scheme
State Institute of Educational Management and Training (SIEMAT)
One time assistance up to Rs. 3 crore
States have to agree to sustain
Selection criteria for faculty to be rigorous
Training of community leaders
For a maximum of 8 persons in a village for 2 days in a year - preferably women
@ Rs. 30/- per day
Provision for disabled children
Upto Rs. 1200/- per child for integration of disabled children, as per specific proposal, per year
District Plan for children with special needs will be formulated within the Rs. 1200 per child norm
Involvement of resource institutions to be encouraged
Research, Evaluation, supervision and monitoring
Upto Rs. 1500 per school per year
Partnership with research and resource institutions, pool of resource teams with State specific focus
Priority to development of capacities for appraisal and supervision through resource/research institutions and on an effective EMIS
Provision for regular school mapping/micro planning for up dating of household data
By creating pool of resource persons, providing travel grant and honorarium for monitoring, generation of community-based data, research studies, cost of assessment and appraisal terms & their field activities, classroom observation by resource persons
Funds to be spent at national, state, district, sub district, school level out of the overall per school allocation.
Rs. 100 per school per year to be spent at national level
Expenditure at State/district/BRC/CRC/ School level to be decided by State/UT, This would include expenditure on appraisal, supervision, MIS, classroom observation, etc. Support to SCERT over and above the provision under the Teacher Education scheme may also be provided.
Involvement of resource institutions willing to undertake state specific responsibilities
Not to exceed 6% of the budget of a district plan
To include expenditure on office expenses, hiring of experts at various levels after assessment of existing manpower, POL, etc.;
Priority to experts in MIS, community planning processes, civil works, gender, etc. depending on capacity available in a particular district
Management costs should be used to develop effective teams at State/ District/Block/Cluster levels
Identification of personnel for BRC/CRC should be a priority in the pre-project phase itself so that a team is available for the intensive process based planning.
Innovative activity for girls' education, early childhood care & education, interventions for children belonging to SC/ST community, computer education specially for upper primary level
Upto to Rs. 15 lakh for each innovative project and Rs. 50 lakh for a district per year will apply for SSA
ECCE and girls education interventions to have unit costs already approved under other existing schemes.
Block Resource Centres/ Cluster Resource Centres
BRC/CRC to be located in school campus as far as possible.
Rs. 6 lakh ceiling for BRC building construction wherever required
Rs. 2 lakh for CRC construction wherever required - should be used as an additional classroom in schools.
Total cost of non-school (BRC and CRC) construction in any district should not exceed 5% of the overall projected expenditure under the programme in any year.
Deployment of up to 20 teacher in a block with more than 100 schools; 10 teachers in smaller Blocks in BRCs/CRCs.
Provision of furniture, etc. @ Rs. 1 lakh for a BRC and Rs. 10,000 for a CRC
Contingency grant of Rs. 12,500 for a BRC and Rs. 2500 for a CRC, per year
Identification of BRC/CRC personnel after intensive selection process in the preparatory phase itself.
Interventions for out of school children
As per norms already approved under Education Guarantee Scheme & Alternative and Innovative Education, providing for the following kind of interventions
Setting up Education Guarantee Centres in unserved habitations
Setting up other alternative schooling models
Bridge Courses, remedial courses, Back-to-School Camps with a focus on mainstreaming out of school children into regular schools.
Preparatory activities for microplanning, household surveys, studies, community mobilization, school-based activities, office equipment, training and orientation at all levels, etc.
As per specific proposal of a district, duly recommended by the State. Urban areas, within a district or metropolitan cities may be treated as a separate unit for planning as required.